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Benefit of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in myocardial infarction-induced cardiogenic shock.

BACKGROUND: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is frequently used for emergency support in patients with profound cardiogenic shock (CS) of all etiologies. However, no controlled study investigating ECMO in myocardial infarction (AMI)-induced CS is available.

METHODS: Retrospective analysis of patients experiencing AMI induced CS; ECMO therapy vs. non ECMO therapy. A total of 476 patients with AMI-induced CS were investigated. One hundred twenty-seven patients (26.7%) received emergency veno-arterial ECMO support, 349 patients did not receive ECMO support. Patients were propensity score matched based on relevant clinical and laboratory factors and revealed 127 matched pairs.

RESULTS: Mean age of patients was 65.0±12.3 years and mean Syntax score was 25.9±7.3 in the full unmatched patient population. Survival at 1, 3 and 5 years after CS was 45.6%, 43.5%, and 41.3% in the ECMO group and 17.4%, 15.8%, and 14.9% in the full unmatched control group (log-rank: P<0.001). After propensity score matching, 1-, 3-, and 5-year survival was 14.4%, 13.5%, and 11.2% in the matched control group (P<0.001). Cox regression analysis identified ECMO support (HR: 2.57; 95% CI: 1.89-3.50; P<0.001) and completeness of revascularization (HR: 1.89; 95% CI: 1.74-2.34, P=0.003) to be independent predictors for long term survival.

CONCLUSIONS: Extracorporeal life support by ECMO significantly increased survival in patients with AMI-induced CS. ECMO insertion increased survival probability 2.57-fold and should be considered as first line treatment in patients with profound AMI-induced CS.

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