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Dynamic Changes in Circulatory Cytokines and Chemokines Levels in Mild to Severe COVID-19 Patients.

UNLABELLED: Immune dysregulation is a key feature of the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). However, disparities in responses across ethnic groups are underappreciated. This study aimed to determine the relationship between chemokines and cytokines and the severity of COVID-19. Multiplex magnetic bead-based Luminex-100 was used to assess chemokine and cytokine levels in COVID-19 patients at admission (day-1) and after 4 days. The mean age of the patients recruited was 54.3 years, with 19 (63.3%) males. COVID-19 patients had significantly lower lymphocyte, monocyte, hemoglobin and eosinophil levels than controls ( p  < 0.05). COVID-19 patients showed significantly higher neutrophil levels than controls ( p  < 0.05). The baseline levels of IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and IFN-α/ γ significantly increased in COVID-19 patients ( p  < 0.05). Chemokine levels (IP-10, MCP-1, MIG, and CCL-5) were significantly in COVID-19 patients. IL-8, IP-10, and MIG levels were significantly higher in the patients with severe COVID-19 ( p  < 0.05). Individuals with mild COVID-19 showed significantly higher levels of INF-α, IL-2, IL-6, and IL-8, whereas IL-10 levels were significantly lower ( p  < 0.05). TNF-levels decreased significantly in individuals with severe COVID-19, whereas IL-6, IL-8, and MIG levels increased ( p  < 0.05). After 4 days, INFα-, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IP-10, and MIG levels were significantly higher in patients with mild disease, whereas IL-6, MIG, and TNF-αlevels were significantly higher in patients with severe disease ( p  < 0.05). Thus, we conclude that COVID-19 is characterized by INF- α / γ , IL-6, IL-10, IP-10, MCP-1, MIG, and CCL5 dysregulation. IL-8, MIG, and IP-10 levels distinguish between moderate and severe COVID-19. Changes in INF-α, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IP-10, and MIG levels can be used to monitor disease progression.

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s12291-022-01108-x.

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