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Acute Kidney Injury: Medical Causes and Pathogenesis.

Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common clinical syndrome characterized by a sudden decline in or loss of kidney function. AKI is not only associated with substantial morbidity and mortality but also with increased risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD). AKI is classically defined and staged based on serum creatinine concentration and urine output rates. The etiology of AKI is conceptually classified into three general categories: prerenal, intrarenal, and postrenal. Although this classification may be useful for establishing a differential diagnosis, AKI has mostly multifactorial, and pathophysiologic features that can be divided into different categories. Acute tubular necrosis, caused by either ischemia or nephrotoxicity, is common in the setting of AKI. The timely and accurate identification of AKI and a better understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms that cause kidney dysfunction are essential. In this review, we consider various medical causes of AKI and summarize the most recent updates in the pathogenesis of AKI.

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