This guideline presents an update to the 2013 American College of Gastroenterology Guideline on the Diagnosis and Management of Celiac Disease with updated recommendations for the evaluation and management of patients with celiac disease (CD). CD is defined as a permanent immune-mediated response to gluten present in wheat, barley, and rye. CD has a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations that resemble a multisystemic disorder rather than an isolated intestinal disease, and is characterized by small bowel injury and the presence of specific antibodies. Detection of CD-specific antibodies (e.g., tissue transglutaminase) in the serum is very helpful for the initial screening of patients with suspicion of CD. Intestinal biopsy is required in most patients to confirm the diagnosis. A nonbiopsy strategy for the diagnosis of CD in selected children is suggested and discussed in detail. Current treatment for CD requires strict adherence to a gluten-free diet (GFD) and lifelong medical follow-up. Most patients have excellent clinical response to a GFD. Nonresponsive CD is defined by persistent or recurrent symptoms despite being on a GFD. These patients require a systematic workup to rule out specific conditions that may cause persistent or recurrent symptoms, especially unintentional gluten contamination. Refractory CD is a rare cause of nonresponsive CD often associated with poor prognosis.
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