Modern management of Fanconi anemia.
In this review, we present a clinical case report and discussion to outline the importance of long-term specific Fanconi anemia (FA) monitoring, and we discuss the main aspects of the general management of patients with FA and clinical complications. While several nontransplant treatments are currently under evaluation, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) remains the only therapeutic option for bone marrow failure (BMF). Although HSCT outcomes in patients with FA have remarkably improved over the past 20 years, in addition to the mortality intrinsic to the procedure, HSCT increases the risk and accelerates the appearance of late malignancies. HSCT offers the best outcome when performed in optimal conditions (moderate cytopenia shifting to severe, prior to transfusion dependence and before clonal evolution or myelodysplasia/acute myeloid leukemia); hence, an accurate surveillance program is vital. Haploidentical HSCT offers very good outcomes, although long-term effects on malignancies have not been fully explored. A monitoring plan is also important to identify cancers, particularly head and neck carcinomas, in very early phases. Gene therapy is still experimental and offers the most encouraging results when performed in early phases of BMF by infusing high numbers of corrected cells without genotoxic effects. Patients with FA need comprehensive monitoring and care plans, coordinated by centers with expertise in FA management, that start at diagnosis and continue throughout life. Such long-term follow-up is essential to detect complications related to the disease or treatment in this setting.
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