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Postpartum Psychosis: The Role of Women's Health Care Providers and the Health Care System.

IMPORTANCE: The postpartum period is a time of high risk for serious psychiatric symptoms and hospitalization. Postpartum psychosis (PPP) is the most severe disorder that emerges during this time, with significant and wide-ranging consequences that can include suicide and infanticide.

EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A PubMed, MEDLINE, and PsycINFO search was completed for English-language publications about PPP, including subtopics (eg, infanticide, maternal suicide). Citations in these articles were also reviewed for relevant references.

RESULTS: Although it is clear that the triggering event for PPP is childbirth, the processes by which this occurs are not fully understood, which is a critical need for being able to predict, prevent, and manage PPP. There are risk factors that contribute to PPP, and specific groups of women may be at increased risk (eg, women with bipolar disorder). Many questions and challenges remain related to the phenomenology, nosology, prevention, and treatment of PPP. However, there are changes that women's health care providers and systems can take to improve the care of women at risk of and experiencing PPP.

RESULTS: Of the 1382 articles reviewed, 8 met eligibility criteria, representing 6 distinct cohorts and 726 subjects. Synthetic slings available for review were either tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) or minisling. The vast majority of studies demonstrated similar short- and long-term success rates of AFS and SS procedures utilizing a range of outcome measures. Both AFS and TVT sling had low recurrence rates in short- and long-term follow-up. However, AFS had significantly longer operative time, and longer hospital stay. Bladder perforation, on the other hand, occurred more commonly in TVT sling. Health-related quality-of-life scores, including sexual function, were similar between groups.

CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Postpartum psychosis is a rare but serious condition. However, recovery is possible. Women's health care providers and systems can improve the care by better understanding the needs of women and families, offering patient-centered discussions and options for care, particularly those that promote recovery, minimize risk, and limit the interruption of the maternal-infant bond. Improving the prevention and treatment of PPP can have a broad impact for women, children, and families.

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