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Phaeohyphomycosis caused by Neoscytalidiumdimidiatum in a COVID-19 patient.

BACKGROUND: Neoscytalidiumdimidiatum is an opportunistic dematiaceous fungus belonging to the class Dothideomycetes.

CASE REPORT: We report a case of N. dimidiatum cerebral phaeohyphomycosis post COVID-19 infection in a 32-year-old male from Iran. The causative agent was identified by cytopathology, routine mycological methods, and DNA sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of rDNA. Apart from COVID-19 complications and the corticosteroid therapy, no underlying condition was diagnosed. The symptoms suggesting the fungal infection were shown two weeks after being discharged from COVID-19 hospital stay. Magnetic resonance of the brain showed a multi-focal central nervous system infection. The delayed identification of the fungus and, thus, a late starting of the antifungal treatment with amphotericin B, might have affected the patient outcome as he finally died.

CONCLUSIONS: Considering the rare incidence of N. dimidiatum infections, this case should aware us about them, leading to a timely antifungal management.

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