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Overall Adverse Event Profile of Vadadustat for the Treatment of Anemia Associated With Chronic Kidney Disease in Phase 3 Trials.

INTRODUCTION: Anemia frequently occurs in chronic kidney disease (CKD), is associated with poor quality of life and cardiovascular outcomes, and its treatment represents a considerable economic burden to the healthcare system. Although effective, the current standard of care for the treatment of anemia in chronic kidney disease patients with erythropoiesis-stimulating agents requires chronic/ongoing injections, making the treatment less accessible or desirable to patients not treated by in-center maintenance hemodialysis. Furthermore, safety concerns, including an increased risk of cardiovascular events and mortality, have emerged from their use in studies targeting hemoglobin concentrations in the normal or near-normal range. The orally active hypoxia-inducible factor prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor vadadustat may offer advantages over erythropoiesis-stimulating agents by correcting anemia via pathways activating endogenous erythropoietin production, with fewer excursions of hemoglobin concentrations above the target range.

METHODS: To comprehensively analyze the safety profile of vadadustat in patients with CKD-related anemia, we pooled the safety populations from each of the four trials in the phase 3 clinical program (n=7373) and compared the risk of treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) for each treatment arm.

RESULTS: In patients randomized to vadadustat vs darbepoetin alfa, rates of TEAEs (88.9% vs 89.3%), treatment-emergent serious adverse events (58.0% vs. 59.3%), and TEAEs leading to death (16.1% vs 16.2%) were similar, as were rates of adverse events of special interest, including cardiovascular-, hepatic-, and neoplasm-related adverse events.

DISCUSSION/CONCLUSION: Among patients with CKD-related anemia treated with vadadustat, we observed similar rates of adverse events relative to those treated with darbepoetin alfa.

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