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Levothyroxine: Conventional and novel drug delivery formulations.

Endocrine Reviews 2022 November 23
Despite the fact that levothyroxine is one of the most prescribed medications in the world, its bioavailability has been reported to be impaired by many factors, including interfering drugs or foods and concomitant diseases, and persistent hypothyroidism with a high dose of levothyroxine is thus elicited. Persistent hypothyroidism can also be induced by noninterchangeability between formulations and poor compliance. To address these issues, some strategies have been developed. Novel formulations (liquid solutions and soft-gel capsules) have been designed to eliminate malabsorption. Some other delivery routes (injections, suppositories, sprays, and sublingual and transdermal administrations) are aimed at circumventing different difficulties in dosing, such as thyroid emergencies and dysphagia. Moreover, nanomaterials have been used to develop delivery systems for the sustained release of levothyroxine to improve patient compliance and reduce costs. Some delivery systems encapsulating nanoparticles show promising release profiles. In this review, we first summarize the medical conditions that interfere with the bioavailability of oral levothyroxine and discuss the underlying mechanisms and treatments. The efficacy of liquid solutions and soft-gel capsules are systematically evaluated. We further summarize the novel delivery routes for levothyroxine and their possible applications. Nanomaterials in the levothyroxine field are then discussed and compared based on their load and release profile. We hope the article provides novel insights into the drug delivery of levothyroxine.

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