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Factors associated with the adoption of evidence-based innovations by substance use disorder treatment organizations: A study of HIV testing.

INTRODUCTION: Though prior research shows that a range of important regulatory, market, community, and organizational factors influence the adoption of evidence-based practices (EBPs) among health care organizations, we have little understanding of how these factors relate to each other. To address this gap, we test a conceptual model that emphasizes indirect, mediated effects among key factors related to HIV testing in substance use disorder treatment organizations (SUTs), a critical EBP during the US opioid epidemic.

METHODS: We draw on nationally representative data from the 2014 (n = 697) and 2017 (n = 657) National Drug Abuse Treatment System Survey (NDATSS) to measure the adoption of HIV testing among the nation's SUTs and their key organizational characteristics; we also draw on data from the US Census Bureau; Centers for Disease Control; and legislative sources to measure regulatory and community environments. We estimate cross-sectional and longitudinal structural equation models (SEM) to test the proposed model.

RESULTS: Our longitudinal model of the adoption of HIV testing by SUTs in the United States identifies a pathway by which community and market characteristics (rurality and the number of other SUTs in the area) are related to key sociotechnical characteristics of these organizations (alignment of clients, staff, and harm-reduction culture) that, in turn, are related to the adoption of this EBP.

CONCLUSIONS: Results also show the importance of developing conceptual models that include indirect effects to account for organizational adoption of EBPs.

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