JOURNAL ARTICLE
REVIEW
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Perinatal Stroke in Fetuses, Preterm and Term Infants.

Perinatal stroke is a well-defined heterogenous group of disorders involving a focal disruption of cerebral blood flow between 20 weeks gestation and 28 days of postnatal life. The most focused lifetime risk for stroke occurs during the first week after birth. The morbidity of perinatal stroke is high, as it is the most common cause of hemiparetic cerebral palsy which results in lifelong disability that becomes more apparent throughout childhood. Perinatal strokes can be classified by the timing of diagnosis (acute or retrospective), vessel involved (arterial or venous), and underlying cause (hemorrhagic or ischemic). Perinatal stroke has primarily been reported as a disorder of term infants; however, the preterm brain possesses different vulnerabilities that predispose an infant to stroke injury both in utero and after birth. Accurate diagnosis of perinatal stroke syndromes has important implications for investigations, management, and prognosis. The classification of perinatal stroke by age at presentation (fetal, preterm neonatal, term neonatal, and infancy/childhood) is summarized in this review, and includes detailed descriptions of risk factors, diagnosis, treatment, outcomes, controversies, and resources for family support.

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