Journal Article
Multicenter Study
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Endovascular Therapy vs Medical Management for Patients With Acute Stroke With Medium Vessel Occlusion in the Anterior Circulation.

JAMA Network Open 2022 October 4
IMPORTANCE: Randomized clinical trials have shown the efficacy of endovascular therapy (EVT) for acute large vessel occlusion strokes. The benefit of EVT in acute stroke with distal, medium vessel occlusion (DMVO) remains unclear.

OBJECTIVE: To examine the efficacy and safety outcomes associated with EVT in patients with primary DMVO stroke when compared with a control cohort treated with medical management (MM) alone.

DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This multicenter, retrospective cohort study pooled data from patients who had an acute stroke and a primary anterior circulation emergency DMVO, defined as any segment of the anterior cerebral artery (ACA) or distal middle cerebral artery, between January 1, 2015, and December 31, 2019. Those with a concomitant proximal occlusion were excluded. Outcomes were compared between the 2 treatment groups using propensity score methods. Data analysis was performed from March to June 2021.

EXPOSURES: Patients were divided into EVT and MM groups.

MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Main efficacy outcomes included 3-month functional independence (modified Rankin Scale [mRS] scores, 0-2) and 3-month excellent outcome (mRS scores, 0-1). Safety outcomes included 3-month mortality and symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage.

RESULTS: A total of 286 patients with DMVO were evaluated, including 156 treated with EVT (mean [SD] age, 66.7 [13.7] years; 90 men [57.6%]; median National Institute of Health Stroke Scale [NIHSS] score, 13.5 [IQR, 8.5-18.5]; intravenous tissue plasminogen activator [IV tPA] use, 75 [49.7%]; ACA involvement, 49 [31.4%]) and 130 treated with medical management (mean [SD] age, 69.8 [14.9] years; 62 men [47.7%]; median NIHSS score, 7.0 [IQR, 4.0-14.0], IV tPA use, 58 [44.6%]; ACA involvement, 31 [24.0%]). There was no difference in the unadjusted rate of 3-month functional independence in the EVT vs MM groups (151 [51.7%] vs 124 [50.0%]; P = .78), excellent outcome (151 [38.4%] vs 123 [31.7%]; P = .25), or mortality (139 [18.7%] vs 106 [11.3%]; P = .15). The rate of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage was similar in the EVT vs MM groups (weighted: 4.0% vs 3.1%; P = .90). In inverse probability of treatment weighting propensity analyses, there was no significant difference between groups for functional independence (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.36; 95% CI, 0.84-2.19; P = .20) or mortality (aOR, 1.24; 95% CI, 0.63-2.43; P = .53), whereas the EVT group had higher odds of an excellent outcome (mRS scores, 0-1) at 3 months (aOR, 1.71; 95% CI, 1.02-2.87; P = .04).

CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: The findings of this multicenter cohort study suggest that EVT may be considered for selected patients with ACA or distal middle cerebral artery strokes. Further larger randomized investigation regarding the risk-benefit ratio for DMVO treatment is indicated.

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