Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Review
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Cellular Senescence in Obesity and Associated Complications: a New Therapeutic Target.

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Obesity has increased worldwide recently and represents a major global health challenge. This review focuses on the obesity-associated cellular senescence in various organs and the role of these senescent cells (SnCs) in driving complications associated with obesity. Also, the ability to target SnCs pharmacologically with drugs termed senotherapeutics as a therapy for these complications is discussed.

RECENT FINDINGS: Several studies have shown a positive correlation between obesity and SnC burden in organs such as adipose tissue, liver, and pancreatic-β-cells. These SnCs produce several secretory factors which affect other cells and tissues in a paracrine manner resulting in organ dysfunction. The accumulation of SnCs in adipocytes affects their lipid storage and impairs adipogenesis. The inflammatory senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) of SnCs downregulates the antioxidant capacity and mitochondrial function in tissues. Senescent hepatocytes cannot oxidize fatty acids, which leads to lipid deposition and senescence in β-cells decrease function. These and other adverse effects of SnCs contribute to insulin resistance and type-2 diabetes. The reduction in the SnC burden genetically or pharmacologically improves the complications associated with obesity. The accumulation of SnCs with age and disease accelerates aging. Obesity is a key driver of SnC accumulation, and the complications associated with obesity can be controlled by reducing the SnC burden. Thus, senotherapeutic drugs have the potential to be an effective therapeutic option.

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