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Immune-Checkpoint-Inhibitor Therapy-Principles and Relevance of Biomarkers for Pathologists and Oncologists.

Immune-checkpoint-inhibitor (ICI) therapy has been one of the major advances in the treatment of a variety of advanced or metastatic tumors in recent years. Therefore, ICI-therapy is already approved in first-line therapy for multiple tumors, either as monotherapy or as combination therapy. However, there are relevant differences in approval among different tumor entities, especially with respect to PD-L1 testing. Different response to ICI-therapy has been observed in the pivotal trials, so PD-L1 diagnostic testing is used for patient selection. In addition to PD-L1 testing of tumor tissue, liquid biopsy provides a noninvasive way to monitor disease in cancer patients and identify those who would benefit most from ICI-therapy. This overview focuses on the use of ICI-therapy and how it relates to common and potential future biomarkers for patient-directed treatment planning.

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