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Diagnosis and Management of Monkeypox: A Review for the Emergency Clinician.

The outbreak of monkeypox in May and June 2022 is the largest outside of central and western Africa since the 2003 outbreak in the United States. Monkeypox, like smallpox, is caused by an orthopoxvirus, though its clinical manifestations tend to be less severe. It is characterized by a prodromal flu-like illness with lymphadenopathy followed by a centrifugally spreading rash, sometimes involving the face, palms, soles, and oral mucosa. Although the vast majority of cases resolve with symptomatic management, a small number of patients can suffer severe outcomes including, but not limited to, secondary bacterial skin infections, pneumonitis, ocular sequelae, encephalitis, hypovolemia, and death. Local, state, and federal health authorities should be involved in the care of people under investigation for this illness. With confirmed cases worldwide and the possibility of community spread, emergency clinicians need to be aware of the manifestations and management of this disease, both to treat those with the disease as well as to provide education to those exposed and at risk of infection.

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