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How Does Lifestyle Affect Hematopoiesis and the Bone Marrow Microenvironment?

Toxicologic Pathology 2022 September 17
Lifestyle factors are modifiable behavioral factors that have a significant impact on health and longevity. Diet-induced obesity and physical activity/exercise are two prevalent lifestyle factors that have strong relationships to overall health. The mechanisms linking obesity to negative health outcomes and the mechanisms linking increased participation in physical activity/exercise to positive health outcomes are beginning to be elucidated. Chronic inflammation, due in part to overproduction of myeloid cells from hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in the bone marrow, is an established mechanism responsible for the negative health effects of obesity. Recent work has shown that exercise training can reverse the aberrant myelopoiesis present in obesity in part by restoring the bone marrow microenvironment. Specifically, exercise training reduces marrow adipose tissue, increases HSC retention factor expression, and reduces pro-inflammatory cytokine levels in the bone marrow. Other, novel mechanistic factors responsible for these exercise-induced effects, including intercellular communication using extracellular vesicles (EVs), is beginning to be explored. This review will summarize the recent literature describing the effects of exercise on hematopoiesis in individuals with obesity and introduce the potential contribution of EVs to this process.

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