Timing of Surgery and Treatment Options for Congenital Ptosis in Children: A Narrative Review of the Literature.
Congenital ptosis has varying degrees of impact on the visual development or psychological health of a child depending on its severity. Some controversies and misconceptions remain regarding the management of congenital ptosis in children. Particularly, the accurate diagnosis of the severity of congenital ptosis in younger children, assessment of the visual developmental status of the child, optimal timing of surgery, and treatment choice are still issues in clinical practice that need to be explored. This report presents a comprehensive review of these aspects of the correction of congenital ptosis to provide a valuable reference for clinical practice. Our review shows that currently used surgical procedures for ptosis may result in over- or under-correction to varying degrees. The differences may be due to the physical condition and age of the child and the degree of cooperation during preoperative examination and assessment, resulting in inaccurate results. Alternatively, intraoperative swelling and bleeding may lead to errors in the values recorded by the surgeon. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE IV: This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .
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