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Radiomics in addition to computed tomography-based body composition nomogram may improve the prediction of postoperative complications in gastric cancer patients.

OBJECTIVES: To determine the impact of computed tomography (CT)-based body composition and radiomics nomogram on the prediction of postoperative complications in gastric cancer.

METHODS: The clinical data of 457 individuals with surgically confirmed gastric cancer, 320 patients in the training cohort (TC) and 137 patients in the validation cohort (VC), were retrospectively analyzed. Body composition data were measured using CT. Postoperative complications were graded using the Clavien-Dindo system. Dedicated radiomics prototype software was used to segment lesions and extract characteristics from preoperative portal venous-phase CT images. Clinical, radiomics, and combined models were developed using logistic regression analysis. Model performance was evaluated using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), and the prediction ability of the optimal model was evaluated using calibration curves and decision curve analysis (DCA).

RESULTS: Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 (NRS2002) score, sarcopenia, and blood loss were independent predictors of postoperative complications in gastric cancer. A radiomics signature was created using 19 conserved radiomics features. The nomogram based on both the clinical model and radiomics signature showed the greatest predictive performance, with AUCs of 0.763 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.708-0.817) and 0.748 (95% CI, 0.667-0.818) in the TC and VC, respectively. The calibration curve and DCA revealed that the nomogram was beneficial in clinical practice for the preoperative prediction of postoperative complications.

CONCLUSIONS: The combined model consisting of NRS2002 score, sarcopenia, blood loss, and a radiomics signature holds potential application value for the individualized prediction of postoperative complications in gastric cancer patients.

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