JOURNAL ARTICLE
RESEARCH SUPPORT, N.I.H., EXTRAMURAL
RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
REVIEW
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Dietary Fructose and Fructose-Induced Pathologies.

The consumption of fructose as sugar and high-fructose corn syrup has markedly increased during the past several decades. This trend coincides with the exponential rise of metabolic diseases, including obesity, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. While the biochemical pathways of fructose metabolism were elucidated in the early 1990s, organismal-level fructose metabolism and its whole-body pathophysiological impacts have been only recently investigated. In this review, we discuss the history of fructose consumption, biochemical and molecular pathways involved in fructose metabolism in different organs and gut microbiota, the role of fructose in the pathogenesis of metabolic diseases, and the remaining questions to treat such diseases.

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