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Gastrointestinal manifestations in PTEN hamartoma tumor syndrome.

The PTEN hamartoma tumor syndrome (PHTS) is a heterogeneous set of multisystem disorders caused by germline pathogenic variants in the PTEN tumor suppressor gene. Manifestations include developmental anomalies and proliferative lesions. Evidence of involvement of the GI tract has accrued over time, leading to the incorporation of GI manifestations (multiple hamartomas, glycogenic acanthosis and colorectal cancer) into the diagnostic criteria. Polyps of the upper and lower GI tract are found in most adult patients and in a significant fraction of children. Polyps tend to be of mixed histology, with a predominance of hamartomas and ganglioneuromas. PHTS patients are also at increased risk of colorectal cancer, and surveillance by colonoscopy is advised starting at the age of 35-40 years. A number of additional manifestations, including eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders, have been observed in few or single cases, and their association with PHTS has yet to be determined.

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