Perioperative mortality and morbidity in childhood essentially depend on the quality of the anesthesia. The Safe Anesthesia for every Tot (SafeTots) initiative takes this into account and has defined normotension, normovolemia and normal heart rate as quality criteria in pediatric anesthesia. Appropriate monitoring of pediatric hemodynamics is necessary to fulfil these criteria. This article provides an overview of currently used methods and techniques for instrumental and non-instrumental cardiovascular monitoring in children. The current study situation, recommendations and guidelines on the application as well as practical aspects of the measurement methods are explained as far as possible. For a better understanding, procedures not routinely used in clinical practice are described in more detail.
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