Advances and challenges in the management of feline sporotrichosis.
The domestic cat is the most susceptible host to Sporothrix infection, developing severe clinical forms. Few effective antifungal agents are available for treating feline sporotrichosis, and cases of treatment failure are common. Treatment success depends on cat health status, therapy-related factors, as well as social/economic issues, but it is mainly contingent upon the host-fungus interaction. The owner's adherence is critical and should be reinforced throughout the treatment to increase the chances of a successful outcome. The antifungal agents described for feline sporotrichosis are most often used in monotherapy regimens. Due to cases in which the treatment with itraconazole failed, the use of antifungal agents in combination should be considered to achieve synergy. The combination of itraconazole and potassium iodide represents an important option for the treatment of naïve cats presenting multiple cutaneous lesions, nasal mucosal lesions and/or respiratory signs, as well as for refractory cases. However, the therapeutic options for unsuccessfully treated cases are scarce. Therefore new options are needed, even more taking into account that there are many in vitro potential molecules not available for use in cats yet. More studies are necessary to correlate in vitro antifungal susceptibility tests results and the outcome of cats treated due to sporotrichosis. This review will briefly discuss both the antifungal drugs and treatment protocols used in cats with sporotrichosis, as well as the determinants of treatment failure.
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