JOURNAL ARTICLE
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Pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy (PDE-ALDH7A1) in adulthood: A Dutch pilot study exploring clinical and patient-reported outcomes.

Background: Little is known about pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy due to α-aminoadipic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency (PDE-ALDH7A1) in adulthood, as the genetic basis of the disorder has only been elucidated 15 years ago. This creates a knowledge gap for physicians, pediatric patients and their parents, which was aimed to address in this study using clinical data as well as patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) for the patient's perspective.

Methods: Dutch, genetically confirmed PDE-ALDH7A1 patients ≥18 years were eligible for inclusion. Clinical data were collected as well as PROMs (PROMIS item banks Anxiety, Depression, Anger, Physical Functioning, Cognitive Functioning, Cognitive Abilities, Ability to Participate and Satisfaction with Social Roles).

Results: Ten out of 11 patients agreed to participate (91% response rate). Seizure control at last follow up (median age 25.2 years, range 17.8-29.8 years) was achieved with pyridoxine monotherapy in 70%, 20% with adjunct common-anti epileptic drugs and 10% did not obtain complete seizure control. Neurologic symptoms were present in all but one patient (90%) and included tremors, noted in 40%. Neuro-imaging abnormalities were present in 80%. Intellectual disability was present in 70%. One patient (10%) attended university, three maintained a job without assistance, five maintained a job with assistance or attended social daycare, and one patient never followed regular education. The cohort scored significantly lower on the PROMIS Cognitive Functioning compared to the general (age-related) population. Distribution of scores was wide on all PROMIS item banks.

Discussion & conclusion: Outcomes of this young adult cohort are heterogeneous and individualized approaches are therefore needed. Long-term seizure control with pyridoxine was achieved for almost all patients. Neurologic symptoms were noted in the majority, including tremors, as well as neuro-imaging abnormalities and intellectual disability, additionally reflected by the PROMIS Cognitive Functioning. PDE-ALDH7A1 patients scored comparable to the general population on all other PROMs, especially regarding Ability to Participate and Satisfaction with Social Roles this may indicate a positive interpretation of their functioning. The aim is to expand this pilot study to larger populations to obtain more solid data, and to advance the use of PROMs to engage patients in research and provide the opportunity for personalized care.

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