Endoscopic Techniques for Nasal Septal Perforation Repair: A Systematic Review

Arron Gravina, Kavya K Pai, Samantha Shave, Jean Anderson Eloy, Christina H Fang
Annals of Otology, Rhinology, and Laryngology 2022 June 8, : 34894221098704

OBJECTIVES: Surgical repair of nasal septal perforations (NSPs) is technically challenging. Advantages associated with endoscopic NSP repair (ENSPR) include enhanced visualization and its minimally invasive nature. Purely endoscopic techniques have successful outcomes with low morbidity. This study provides a review of clinical features, surgical techniques, and outcomes in patients who underwent ENSPR.

METHODS: A systematic review was conducted using PubMed/MEDLINE, Cochrane library, and Embase databases. Manual bibliography search produced additional articles. Studies reporting purely endoscopic approaches for NSP repair were included. Patient demographics, NSP size, etiology, repair strategy, incidence of closure, and follow-up were analyzed.

RESULTS: A total of 329 cases from 20 studies were included. The mean age was 37.2 years (range, 12.3-51 years) and 55.0% were male. Common etiologies were iatrogenic (n = 180, 60.0%), trauma (n = 66, 22.0%), and idiopathic (n = 36, 12.0%). The mean NSP size was 17.1 mm (range, 4-23). Repair techniques included unilateral random pattern flaps (n = 205, 62.3%), interposition grafts (n = 137, 41.6%), and unilateral axial pedicled local flaps (n = 81, 24.6%). 222 patients (67.5%) underwent a 2-layered repair, while 70 (21.3%) and 37 (11.2%) patients underwent single and 3-layered repairs, respectively. Successful closure was achieved in 296 patients (90.0%). When stratified by layers of repair, 65 single-layered (92.9%), 196 2-layered (88.3%), and 34 3-layered repairs (91.9%) were successful at a mean follow-up of 16.3 months (range, 3-31 months).

CONCLUSIONS: ENSPR generally achieves NSP closure with high rates of success among varying types of repairs. Further studies may determine how clinical factors and surgical methods impact the likelihood of obtaining successful closure.

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