Journal Article
Randomized Controlled Trial
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
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Clinical trial: seven-day vonoprazan- versus 14-day proton pump inhibitor-based triple therapy for first-line Helicobacter pylori eradication.

BACKGROUND: One-week triple therapy with vonoprazan is endorsed by Japanese guidelines as an alternative to proton pump inhibitor (PPI)-based triple therapy for first-line Helicobacter pylori eradication. This contrasts with Western guidelines recommending 2-week PPI-based triple therapy.

AIM: To verify the non-inferiority of 1-week vonoprazan-based triple therapy versus 2-week PPI-based triple therapy as first-line H. pylori eradication in a multiracial Asian cohort.

METHODS: Randomised controlled trial of treatment-naïve patients with H. pylori infection assigned 1:1 to either 7 days amoxicillin 1 g + clarithromycin 500 mg + vonoprazan 20 mg twice per day or 14 days amoxicillin 1 g + clarithromycin 500 mg + omeprazole OR esomeprazole OR rabeprazole 20 mg twice/day. Subjects were randomly assigned to each PPI 1:1:1 Demographics, H. pylori resistance, CYP 2C19 genotype, eradication success and safety profiles were compared between groups.

RESULTS: Between June 2019 and June 2021, 252 of 1097 subjects screened were randomised. 244 (age [SD] 51.7 [14.6]) received vonoprazan- (n = 119) or PPI-based (n = 125) triple therapy. Eradication rates by intention-to-treat analysis were 87.4% (vonoprazan-based triple therapy) versus 88.0% (PPI-based triple therapy. By per protocol analysis: 96.3% (vonoprazan-based triple therapy) versus 94.0% (PPI-based triple therapy). Clarithromycin resistance predicted treatment failure on multivariate analysis: RR 11.4; 95% CI [1.4-96.3], p = 0.025. No significant differences in CYP 2C19 genotypes or adverse events occurred between groups.

CONCLUSION: One-week vonoprazan-based triple therapy achieved comparable efficacy to 2-week PPI-based triple therapy and was well tolerated.

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