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Increased Risk of Refractive Errors and Amblyopia among Children with Ptosis: A Nationwide Population-Based Study.

Background: This study aimed to investigate the risk of refractive errors (astigmatism, myopia, and hyperopia) and amblyopia in children with ptosis and association between age at diagnosis of ptosis and subsequent risks of vision problems. Methods: Retrospective claims data from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) were analyzed. We identified 1799 children aged 0−18 years who were newly diagnosed with ptosis between 2000 and 2012 and 7187 individuals without the disease. Both cohorts were followed up until 2013 to estimate the incidence of refractive errors and amblyopia. Results: Children with ptosis had 5.93-fold, 3.46-fold, 7.60-fold, and 13.45-fold increases in the risk of developing astigmatism, myopia, hyperopia, and amblyopia, respectively, compared with the control cohort (astigmatism: adjusted hazard ratio, aHR = 5.93, 95% confidence interval, CI = 5.16−6.82; myopia: aHR = 3.46, 95% CI = 3.13−3.83; hyperopia: aHR = 7.60, 95% CI = 5.99−9.63; amblyopia: aHR = 13.45, 95% CI = 10.60−17.05). Children diagnosed with ptosis at an age older than 3 years old had a higher risk of myopia than patients diagnosed with ptosis before age 3. There was no significant difference of the risk of astigmatism, amblyopia, and hyperopia between age groups. Conclusions: Children with ptosis may exhibit a higher risk of astigmatism, myopia, hyperopia, and amblyopia than children without ptosis. The risk of myopia is higher in children with ptosis diagnosed at >3 years than those diagnosed at ≤3 years.

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