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Shared Etiology in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Epilepsy with Functional Disability.

Autism spectrum disorders and epilepsies are heterogeneous human disorders that have miscellaneous etiologies and pathophysiology. There is considerable risk of frequent epilepsy in autism that facilitates amplified morbidity and mortality. Several biological pathways appear to be involved in disease progression, including gene transcription regulation, cellular growth, synaptic channel function, and maintenance of synaptic structure. Here, abnormalities in excitatory/inhibitory (E/I) balance ratio are reviewed along with part of an epileptiform activity that may drive both overconnectivity and genetic disorders where autism spectrum disorders and epilepsy frequently co-occur. The most current ideas concerning common etiological and molecular mechanisms for co-occurrence of both autism spectrum disorders and epilepsy are discussed along with the powerful pharmacological therapies that protect the cognition and behavior of patients. Better understanding is necessary to identify a biological mechanism that might lead to possible treatments for these neurological disorders.

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