JOURNAL ARTICLE
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The experience of hereditary apolipoprotein A-I amyloidosis at the UK National Amyloidosis Centre.

INTRODUCTION: Hereditary apolipoprotein A-I (AApoAI) amyloidosis is a rare heterogeneous disease with variable age of onset and organ involvement. There are few series detailing the natural history and outcomes of solid organ transplantation across a range of causative APOA1 gene mutations.

METHODS: We identified all patients with AApoAI amyloidosis who presented to the National Amyloidosis Centre (NAC) between 1986 and 2019.

RESULTS: In total, 57 patients with 14 different APOA1 mutations were identified including 18 patients who underwent renal transplantation (5 combined liver-kidney (LKT) and 2 combined heart-kidney (HKT) transplants). Median age of presentation was 43 years and median time from presentation to referral was 3 (0-31 years). Involvement of the kidneys, liver and heart by amyloid was detected in 81%, 67% and 28% of patients, respectively. Renal amyloidosis was universal in association with the most commonly identified variant (Gly26Arg, n  = 28). Across all variants, patients with renal amyloidosis had a median creatinine of 159 µmol/L and median urinary protein of 0.3 g/24 h at the time of diagnosis of AApoAI amyloidosis and median time from diagnosis to end-stage renal disease was 15.0 (95% CI: 10.0-20.0) years. Post-renal transplantation, median allograft survival was 22.0 (13.0-31.0) years. There was one early death following transplantation (infection-related at 2 months post-renal transplant) and no episodes of early rejection leading to graft failure. Liver transplantation led to regression of amyloid in all four cases in whom serial 123 I-SAP scintigraphy was performed.

CONCLUSIONS: AApoAI amyloidosis is a slowly progressive disease that is challenging to diagnose. The outcomes of transplantation are encouraging and graft survival is excellent.

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