Growth, Endocrine Features, and Growth Hormone Treatment in Noonan Syndrome.
Noonan syndrome is a heterogeneous congenital disorder. The main features are typical facial features, short stature and cardiac defects. The diagnosis is clinical: in 80% of patients with Noonan syndrome a genetic defect can be shown. Inheritance is predominantly autosomal dominant and seldom autosomal recessive. In 2001, PTPN11 was the first gene connected to Noonan syndrome, and until now, at least 20 other genes have been discovered. All genes code for proteins involved in the RAS-MAP-kinase pathway, and therefore, Noonan syndrome is one of the known RASopathies. Other RASopathies include neurofibromatosis and CFC syndrome. Short stature is one of the defining features of Noonan syndrome. The cause is not fully understood but is multifactorial. Other endocrinological features are confined to delayed puberty and hypogonadism in boys and males. To increase adult height, children with Noonan syndrome have been treated with human growth hormone since the 1990s. This seems to be beneficial in most of the children treated. In this narrative review, we describe the current knowledge on growth, endocrinological features and growth hormone treatment in patients with Noonan syndrome.
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