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Endovascular Treatment for Transplant Renal Artery Stenosis Improves the Short- and Long-Term Graft and Patient Outcomes.

OBJECTIVES: Transplant renal artery stenosis is the commonest vascular complication after kidney transplant. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of endovascular treatment for patients with clinically significant transplant renal artery stenosis.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Electronic patient records of kidney transplant recipients who received transplants from October 1, 2010, to July 31, 2021, at the Royal Liverpool University Hospital were retrospectively reviewedtoidentify thosewhounderwent endovascular treatment for transplant renal artery stenosis. Analysis of variance and paired sample t tests were respectively used to compare serum creatinine and the mean number of antihypertensive medications before and aftertreatment.

RESULTS: During the period of analysis, there were 1211 kidney transplant recipients, with 33 (2.72%) who received endovascular treatment for transplant renal artery stenosis. Mostofthesepatientsweremen(25/33), and the median age was 59 years (range, 27-83 y). The mean follow-up duration was 69.82 months. As primary treatment, 19/33 patients (57.6%) were treated with percutaneous balloon angioplasty and 14/33 (42.4%) received stents. Procedure-related complications occurred in 3 patients (9.1%; 2 had false aneurysms, 1 had renal artery dissection). Significant improvements in mean serum creatinine levels were shown up to 4 years after the procedure (P = .019). A significant difference in the mean number of antihypertensive drugs before and after treatment was noted in those who had resistant hypertension as a presentation for transplantrenal artery stenosis (P = .016). At the end of follow-up, 7 patients (21.1%) had graft failure, with 1 patient (3.0%) having graft failure as a direct consequence of transplant renal artery stenosis. There was no reported incidence of patient mortality.

CONCLUSIONS: Endovascular treatment for transplant renal artery stenosis provides a sustained improvement in graft function and a significant reduction in antihypertensive drug requirement.

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