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Treatment of Spinal Arteriovenous Malformation and Fistula.

With the rapid advancements in endovascular therapy over previous decades, the treatment of spinal arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) continues to evolve. The decision to use endovascular versus surgical therapy largely depends on the type of lesion and its anatomic location. Recent studies demonstrate that endovascular treatment is effective for extradural arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs), intradural ventral (perimedullary) AVMs, and intramedullary spinal AVMs. Treatment of intradural dorsal (dural) AVFs remains largely surgical because of lower recurrence rates, although recent studies demonstrate equivocal outcomes. Extradural-intradural (juvenile) AVMs and conus AVMs remain difficult-to-treat lesions.

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