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Common Variable Immunodeficiency in Elderly Patients: A Long-Term Clinical Experience.

Biomedicines 2022 March 10
Background: Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is a complex, predominantly antibody deficiency usually diagnosed between 20−40 years. Few data about elderly patients are reported in the literature. Our aim was to evaluate the clinical phenotypes of elderly patients with CVID. Method: A retrospective analysis of adult patients with CVID was performed in our Referral Centre, focusing on the main differences between “older” patients (≥65 years at the diagnosis) and “younger” patients (<65 years). Results: The data from 65 younger and 13 older patients followed up for a median period of 8.5 years were available. At diagnosis, recurrent infections represented the only clinical manifestation in 61% and 69% of younger and older patients, respectively. The incidence of autoimmune diseases was higher in elderly patients compared with younger ones (30 vs. 18%, respectively). During the follow-up, the incidence of autoimmune disorders and enteropathy increased in the younger patients whereas neoplasia became the most prevalent complication in the elderly (38%). All patients received a replacement therapy with immunoglobulin, with good compliance. Conclusion: CVID occurrence in elderly patients is rarely described; therefore, the clinical characteristics are not completely known. In our series, neoplasia became the most prevalent complication in the elderly during the follow-up. In elderly patients, 20% SCIg was as safe as in the younger ones, with good compliance. A genetic analysis is important to confirm the diagnosis, identify specific presentations in the different ages, clarify the prognosis and guide the treatment. Future clinical research in this field may potentially help to guide their care.

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