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An Updated Review of Tetrodotoxin and Its Peculiarities.

Marine Drugs 2022 January 4
Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is a crystalline, weakly basic, colorless organic substance and is one of the most potent marine toxins known. Although TTX was first isolated from pufferfish, it has been found in numerous other marine organisms and a few terrestrial species. Moreover, tetrodotoxication is still an important health problem today, as TTX has no known antidote. TTX poisonings were most commonly reported from Japan, Thailand, and China, but today the risk of TTX poisoning is spreading around the world. Recent studies have shown that TTX-containing fish are being found in other regions of the Pacific and in the Indian Ocean, as well as the Mediterranean Sea. This review aims to summarize pertinent information available to date on the structure, origin, distribution, mechanism of action of TTX and analytical methods used for the detection of TTX, as well as on TTX-containing organisms, symptoms of TTX poisoning, and incidence worldwide.

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