Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
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Outcomes of relapsed B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia after sequential treatment with blinatumomab and inotuzumab.

Blood Advances 2022 March 9
Novel monoclonal antibody (mAb)-based therapies targeting CD19 and CD22 (blinatumomab and inotuzumab) have shown high rates of complete remission (CR) and been used as a bridging treatment to potentially curative allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloHSCT) in adults with relapsed or refractory (R/R) B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL). However, limited data exist on the outcome of patients resistant to both mAbs as well as responses to each agent when progressed after the alternate antigen-targeted mAb. Herein, we report outcomes of 29 patients with R/R B-ALL previously treated with both blinatumomab and inotuzumab. Twenty-five patients (86.2%) received blinatumomab as first mAb (mAb1), and CD19-negative/dim relapses were observed in 44% of the patients. Inotuzumab induced CR in 68% of the patients for post-blinatumomab relapse regardless of CD19 expression status. The median time between mAb1 and mAb2 was 99 days. Twelve (63.2%) of 19 patients who achieved remission after mAb2 underwent alloHSCT. The median time from mAb2 to alloHSCT was 37.5 days. Acute graft-versus-host disease and nonrelapse mortality were observed in 58.3% (grade 3 or higher, 25%) and 41.7%, respectively. With a median follow-up of 16.8 months after mAb2, 19 patients (65.5%) relapsed, and 21 patients (72.4%) have died. Overall survival was not different between alloHSCT and non-alloHSCT patients. In conclusion, patients with B-ALL who relapsed after blinatumomab could be successfully rescued by inotuzumab as a bridge to alloHSCT but represent an ultra-high-risk group with poor overall survival. Further studies, including novel consolidation and treatment sequence, may improve outcomes of these patients.

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