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Effects of Resistance Training Intervention along with Leucine-Enriched Whey Protein Supplementation on Sarcopenia and Frailty in Post-Hospitalized Older Adults: Preliminary Findings of a Randomized Controlled Trial.

Resistance training and protein supplementation are expected to exert the greatest effect in counteracting muscle-wasting conditions. Myokines might play a key role, but this remains to be elucidated. The aim of this study (NCT03815201) was to examine the effects of a resistance training program with post-exercise leucine-enriched protein supplementation on sarcopenia and frailty status and on the plasma myokine concentrations of post-hospitalized older adults. A total of 41 participants were included in this 12-week resistance training intervention and randomized either to the placebo group or the protein group. Sarcopenia, frailty, body composition and blood-based myokines were measured at baseline and after 12 weeks. Both groups improved in terms of physical performance ( p < 0.005) and frailty ( p < 0.07) following the resistance training intervention, but without any difference between groups. Myokine concentrations did not change after the intervention in either group. Changes in myostatin concentrations were associated with greater improvements in appendicular skeletal muscle mass at the end of the intervention ( p < 0.05). In conclusion, the implementation of resistance training programs after hospitalization in older adults should be prioritized to combat sarcopenia and frailty immediately. The results regarding myostatin should be taken as preliminary findings.

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