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Recent Advances in the Genetic of MALT Lymphomas.

Cancers 2021 December 31
Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas are a diverse group of lymphoid neoplasms with B-cell origin, occurring in adult patients and usually having an indolent clinical behavior. These lymphomas may arise in different anatomic locations, sharing many clinicopathological characteristics, but also having substantial variances in the aetiology and genetic alterations. Chromosomal translocations are recurrent in MALT lymphomas with different prevalence among different sites, being the 4 most common: t(11;18)(q21;q21), t(1;14)(p22;q32), t(14;18)(q32;q21), and t(3;14)(p14.1;q32). Several chromosomal numerical abnormalities have also been described, but probably represent secondary genetic events. The mutational landscape of MALT lymphomas is wide, and the most frequent mutations are: TNFAIP3 , CREBBP , KMT2C , TET2 , SPEN , KMT2D , LRP1B , PRDM1 , EP300 , TNFRSF14 , NOTCH1/NOTCH2 , and B2M , but many other genes may be involved. Similar to chromosomal translocations, certain mutations are enriched in specific lymphoma types. In the same line, variation in immunoglobulin gene usage is recognized among MALT lymphoma of different anatomic locations. In the last decade, several studies have analyzed the role of microRNA, transcriptomics and epigenetic alterations, further improving our knowledge about the pathogenic mechanisms in MALT lymphoma development. All these advances open the possibility of targeted directed treatment and push forward the concept of precision medicine in MALT lymphomas.

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