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Association of Sodium-Glucose Transport Protein 2 Inhibitor Use for Type 2 Diabetes and Incidence of Gout in Taiwan.

JAMA Network Open 2021 November 2
Importance: The use of sodium-glucose transport protein 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors is currently a standard intervention in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and exerts favorable pleiotropic effects to consistently lower blood urate levels. However, to date, no association between SGLT2 inhibitor use and the incidence of gout have been established.

Objective: To investigate whether prescribed SGLT2 inhibitors are associated with lower gout incidence in patients with T2DM.

Design, Setting, and Participants: In a cohort study, all patients with incident T2DM in Taiwan National Health Institution databases between May 1, 2016, and December 31, 2018, were retrospectively analyzed. As a comparator, patients using dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) inhibitors were included. A total of 47 905 individuals receiving an SGLT2 inhibitor and 183 303 receiving a DPP4 inhibitor were evaluated, along with 47 405 pairs of patients using an SGLT2 inhibitor or DPP4 inhibitor in 1:1 propensity score-matched analyses. Data analysis was conducted from April 1 to June 30, 2021.

Main Outcomes and Measures: A gout diagnosis was based on the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) and the International Statistical Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-10-CM). Multiple Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs.

Results: In total, 231 208 patients with T2DM were included in the population; 113 812 individuals (49.22%) were women, and the mean (SD) age was 61.53 (12.86) years. The overall gout incidence was 20.26 per 1000 patient-years for SGLT2 inhibitor users and 24.30 per 1000 patient-years for DPP4 inhibitor users. When potential risk factors were adjusted in the propensity score-matched population, use of SGLT2 inhibitors was associated with a lower risk of gout (HR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.82-0.96) compared with DPP4 inhibitors, particularly for patients receiving dapagliflozin (HR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.78-0.95). A sensitivity analysis, performed when a gout diagnosis was ascertained using the ICD-9-CM or ICD-10-CM code with gout-related medication, also showed a significantly lower risk for gout incidence of 15% with SGLT2 inhibitors (HR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.74-0.97). Subgroup analysis indicated that SGLT2 inhibitor benefits in patients with T2DM to achieve a lower gout risk were not different across subgroups.

Conclusions and Relevance: The findings of this study suggest that patients with T2DM who are receiving SGLT2 inhibitors may have a lower risk for gout compared with those receiving DPP4 inhibitors.

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