Maffucci Syndrome with Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma: A Case Report

Ryoichiro Kobayashi, Akira Shimizu, Koji Kubota, Tsuyoshi Notake, Shinsuke Sugenoya, Kiyotaka Hosoda, Hikaru Hayashi, Koya Yasukawa, Yayoi Satoh, Mai Iwaya, Kenji Sano, Yuji Soejima
Case Reports in Oncology 2021, 14 (3): 1347-1352
Maffucci syndrome is characterized by multiple hemangiomas and enchondromas. Somatic mutations in IDH1 and IDH2 are associated with the development of Maffucci syndrome, and these patients develop various malignant nonskeletal tumors in addition to malignant skeletal tumors. We report a case of Maffucci syndrome with IDH1 mutation complicated by intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. The patient was a 35-year-old woman who was diagnosed with Maffucci syndrome in childhood. She was referred to our department because of a large hepatic tumor. Serum carcinoembryonic antigen was 27.1 ng/mL upon laboratory examination. CT scanning showed a large low-density tumor (90 × 70 mm) in the right lobe of the liver, and MRI revealed a multilobulated and fibrous tumor, which was observed as high signal intensity on T2- and diffusion-weighted images and low signal intensity on T1-weighted images. Positron emission tomography-CT revealed peritoneal dissemination and cancer spread to the muscles of the back. Finally, she was diagnosed with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma with dissemination and metastases. We performed a tumor biopsy to determine a treatment plan for chemotherapy. Sanger sequencing of a tumor biopsy identified a mutation in IDH1 at c.394C>T (R132C), but the patient died of rapid cancer progression before the chemotherapy could be initiated. Although rare, malignant tumors can develop in patients with Maffucci syndrome; therefore, it is necessary to monitor these tumors through careful and periodic observation.

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