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Seizure Management in the Intensive Care Unit.

PURPOSE OF THIS REVIEW: This review presents current therapy for seizures in the intensive care unit. The reader is provided with recent evidence regarding the use of EEG in determining treatment for acute seizures. Proposed treatment approaches for seizures and status epilepticus are provided. Controversies and complexity of selecting treatments are discussed.

RECENT FINDINGS: Critical Care EEG Monitoring Research Consortium analyzed the association of periodic and rhythmic electroencephalographic patterns with seizures and found that lateralized and generalized periodic discharges and lateralized rhythmic delta were associated with increased seizure risk. Applications using modified EEG techniques have demonstrated more rapid feedback to the ICU than was previously possible.

SUMMARY: Accurate diagnosis and efficient treatment of seizures in the ICU is challenging due to patient factors, complexities of antiepileptic drug therapy, and the required expertise for EEG interpretation. Selection of optimally effective therapy for seizures or status epilepticus depends on multiple factors, making collaboration between neurophysiologists and the ICU team of paramount importance.

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