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Unilateral Testicular Tuberculosis: An Extra-Pulmonary Manifestation.

Curēus 2021 October
The pathogenicity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) causes it to most commonly manifest within the respiratory system (pulmonary tuberculosis); however, 15% of cases undergo extra-pulmonary spread to various organs. Genitourinary tuberculosis (GUTB) is a rare form of tuberculosis infection which has a propensity to affect the genitourinary tract, primarily affecting the kidneys, epididymis, seminal vesicles and prostate; however, 0.5% of cases result in infection of the testicles. This may present unilaterally or bilaterally with varying atypical presentations, thus misleading physicians in diagnosis. We present a case in a 48-year-old patient admitted to the surgical assessment unit in our hospital presenting with a unilateral painful testicular lesion and scrotal changes. He was admitted nine weeks prior for unexplainable constitutional symptoms however presented again whilst awaiting follow up in an outpatient clinic. Ultrasound guidance and fine-needle aspiration & culture (FNAC) of the lesion resulted in a positive diagnosis for M. tuberculosis . He underwent anti-tuberculous chemotherapy treatment for six months as per clinical guidance with adequate clinical response.

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