Recent Updates and Advances in Winiwarter-Buerger Disease (Thromboangiitis Obliterans): Biomolecular Mechanisms, Diagnostics and Clinical Consequences.
Thromboangiitis obliterans (TAO) or Buerger's disease is a segmental inflammatory, thrombotic occlusive peripheral vascular disease with unknown aetiology that usually involves the medium and small-sized vessels of young male smokers. Due to its unknown aetiology and similarities with atherosclerosis and vasculitis, TAO diagnosis is still challenging. We aimed to review the status of biomolecular and laboratory para-clinical markers in TAO compared to atherosclerosis and vasculitis. We reported that, although some biomarkers might be common in TAO, atherosclerosis, and vasculitis, each disease occurs through a different pathway and, to our knowledge, there is no specific and definitive marker for differentiating TAO from atherosclerosis or vasculitis. Our review highlighted that pro-inflammatory and cell-mediated immunity cytokines, IL-33, HMGB1, neopterin, MMPs, ICAM1, complement components, fibrinogen, oxidative stress, NO levels, eNOS polymorphism, adrenalin and noradrenalin, lead, cadmium, and homocysteine are common markers. Nitric oxide, MPV, TLRs, MDA, ox-LDL, sST2, antioxidant system, autoantibodies, and type of infection are differential markers, whereas platelet and leukocyte count, haemoglobin, lipid profile, CRP, ESR, FBS, creatinine, d-dimer, hypercoagulation activity, as well as protein C and S are controversial markers. Finally, our study proposed diagnostic panels for laboratory differential diagnosis to be considered at first and in more advanced stages.
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