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Polymyositis and dermatomyositis: ocular manifestations and potential sight-threatening complications.

Dermatomyositis (DM) and polymyositis (PM) are idiopathic inflammatory myopathies characterized by progressive, symmetric, mainly proximal muscle weakness. DM is also characterized by cutaneous involvement. However, other clinical features, systemic involvement, histopathological findings, response to treatment, and prognosis, differ significantly. Although uncommon, ocular manifestations in DM and PM may potentially affect any structure within the eye. Notwithstanding being generally mild, ocular involvement in DM and PM may result in significant morbidity. Left untreated, significant retinal inflammation associated with hemorrhage and detachment may occur, leading to significant vision loss. This review aims to present an up-to-date overview for rheumatologists about the ocular involvement and potential complications of DM and PM and when to refer to the ophthalmologist to avoid sight-threatening complications.

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