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Meta-Analysis
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All-cause mortality and causes of death in persons with haemophilia: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

INTRODUCTION: Improvements in haemophilia treatment over the last decades resulted in increased life expectancy in persons with haemophilia (PWH).

AIM: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine all-cause mortality and causes of death among PWH.

METHODS: We systematically searched EMBASE, MEDLINE, Web of Science, CINAHL and Cochrane central register of controlled trials from inception through March 15, 2021. Studies that reported a mortality estimate of PWH compared with the general population and/or reported causes of death were included. Random-effects meta-analysis with inverse variance method was used to obtain pooled estimates. We stratified the analysis by the year of cohort entry (before 2000 vs after 2000).

RESULT: Of the 4769 studies identified, 52 met the eligibility criteria. The pooled all-cause standardized mortality ratio (SMR) from 9 studies in PWH was 1.93 (95% CI 1.38-2.70; I2 = 97%). The pooled SMRs before and after the year 2000 were 2.40 (95% CI 1.92-3.00; I2 = 87%) and 1.20 (95% CI 1.03-1.40; I2 = 62%), respectively. Before the year 2000, 31.2% deaths occurred due to HIV followed by haemorrhage (26.0%), cardiovascular disease (18.2%), liver disease (9.0%), and cancer (8.9%). Fewer (13.9%) deaths were attributable to HIV after the year 2000 with the proportion of deaths due to haemorrhage remaining unchanged.

CONCLUSION: With treatment advances, mortality in PWH has declined over the last few decades approaching that of the general population. However, haemorrhage remains a leading cause of death requiring further attention.

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