Pulmonary complications observed in patients with infective endocarditis with and without injection drug use: An analysis of the National Inpatient Sample

Jenny T Bui, Asher J Schranz, Paula D Strassle, Chris B Agala, Gita N Mody, John S Ikonomidis, Jason M Long
PloS One 2021, 16 (9): e0256757

BACKGROUND: The impact of cardiovascular and neurologic complications on infective endocarditis (IE) are well studied, yet the prevalence and significance of pulmonary complications in IE is not defined. To better characterize the multifaceted nature of IE management, we aimed to describe the occurrence and significance of pulmonary complications in IE, including among persons with IE related to drug use.

METHODS: Hospitalizations of adult (≥18 years old) patients diagnosed with IE were identified in the 2016 National Inpatient Sample using ICD-10 codes. Multivariable logistic and linear regression were used to compare IE patient outcomes between those with and without pulmonary complications and to identify predictors of pulmonary complications. Interaction terms were used to assess the impact of drug-use IE (DU-IE) and pulmonary complications on inpatient outcomes.

RESULTS: In 2016, there were an estimated 88,995 hospitalizations of patients diagnosed with IE. Of these hospitalizations,15,490 (17%) were drug-use related. Drug-use IE (DU-IE) had the highest odds of pulmonary complications (OR 2.97, 95% CI 2.50, 3.45). At least one pulmonary complication was identified in 6,580 (7%) of IE patients. DU-IE hospitalizations were more likely to have a diagnosis of pyothorax (3% vs. 1%, p<0.001), lung abscess (3% vs. <1%, p<0.001), and septic pulmonary embolism (27% vs. 2%, p<0.001). Pulmonary complications were associated with longer average lengths of stay (CIE 7.22 days 95% CI 6.11, 8.32), higher hospital charges (CIE 78.51 thousand dollars 95% CI 57.44, 99.57), more frequent post-discharge transfers (acute care: OR 1.37, 95% CI 1.09, 1.71; long-term care: OR 2.19, 95% CI 1.83, 2.61), and increased odds of inpatient mortality (OR 1.81 95% CI 1.39, 2.35).

CONCLUSION AND RELEVANCE: IE with pulmonary complications is associated with worse outcomes. Patients with DU-IE have a particularly high prevalence of pulmonary complications that may require timely thoracic surgical intervention, likely owing to right-sided valve involvement. More research is needed to determine optimal management strategies for complications to improve patient outcomes.

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