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Differential diagnosis between syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion and cerebral/renal salt wasting syndrome in children over 1 year: proposal for a simple algorithm.

Hyponatremia, especially if acute and severe, can be a life-threatening condition. Several conditions can trigger hyponatremia. In this review, we will discuss two conditions that can determine euvolemic hyponatremia: the cerebral/renal salt wasting (CRSW) syndrome and the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH), including the two subtypes: reset osmostat (RO) and nephrogenic syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis (NSIAD) and their differential diagnoses. Despite the passage of over 70 years since its first description, to date, the true etiopathogenesis of CRSW syndrome, a rare cause of hypovolemic/euvolemic hyponatremia, is almost unknown. SIADH, including RO and NSIAD, is sometimes difficult to differentiate from CRSW syndrome; in its differential diagnosis, the clinical approach based on the evaluation of the extracellular volume (ECV) was proven insufficient. We therefore suggest a simple diagnostic algorithm based on the assessment of the degree of hyponatremia, urinary osmolality, and the assessment of the fraction of urate excretion (FEUa) in conditions of hyponatremia and after serum sodium correction, to be applied in children over 1 year of life.

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