Unraveling the Wide Spectrum of Melanoma Biomarkers.
The use of biomarkers in medicine has become essential in clinical practice in order to help with diagnosis, prognostication and prediction of treatment response. Since Alexander Breslow's original report on "melanoma and prognostic values of thickness", providing the first biomarker for melanoma, many promising new biomarkers have followed. These include serum markers, such as lactate dehydrogenase and S100 calcium-binding protein B. However, as our understanding of the DNA mutational profile progresses, new gene targets and proteins have been identified. These include point mutations, such as mutations of the BRAF gene and tumour suppressor gene tP53. At present, only a small number of the available biomarkers are being utilised, but this may soon change as more studies are published. The aim of this article is to provide a comprehensive review of melanoma biomarkers and their utility for current and, potentially, future clinical practice.
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