RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
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Association of Thrombosis With Hypereosinophilic Syndrome in Patients With Genetic Alterations.

JAMA Network Open 2021 August 3
Importance: Hypereosinophilic syndromes (HESs) are a rare group of disorders that result in overproduction of eosinophils, leading to tissue damage. Thrombotic complications in HES and associated risk factors in this patient population have not been extensively studied.

Objective: To investigate the rates of and risk factors associated with thrombotic events in patients with HES, including markers of clonal hematopoiesis as evidenced by molecular aberrations on next-generation sequencing.

Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective cohort study evaluated patients seen at Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School in Boston, Massachusetts, from January 1, 2015, to January 1, 2020. Patients who had hypereosinophilia with an absolute eosinophil count of 1500 cells/μL or greater on 2 separate occasions at least 1 month apart and who underwent genetic or molecular testing as part of their work-up were included. Patients with secondary eosinophilia were excluded.

Main Outcomes and Measures: Symptomatic and asymptomatic arterial and venous thrombotic events after the diagnosis of HES and all-cause death.

Results: A total of 71 patients (median age, 58 years [interquartile range (IQR), 43-67 years]; 36 women [51%]; 57 White patients [80%]) were included. Patients had a median follow-up time of 29 months (IQR, 19-49 months). Seventeen patients (24%) had 1 or more thrombotic events, including 11 venous thromboembolic events and 11 arterial thrombotic events (8 patients had ≥1 event and 3 patients had recurrent events). Patients with 1 or more thrombotic events had a higher median Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (median, 1 [IQR, 1-2] vs 0 [IQR, 0-1]; P = .002), had more frequent cardiac involvement (7 of 17 events [41%] vs 6 of 54 events [11%]; P = .01), more frequently received treatment (17 of 17 events [100%] vs 40 of 54 events [74%]; P = .02), and had more molecular aberrations on next-generation sequencing (12 of 17 [71%] vs 12 of 54 [26%]; P = .003) vs patients without thrombosis. After multivariable analysis, the presence of molecular aberration was associated with increased odds of thrombosis (adjusted odds ratio, 5.4; 95% CI, 1.1-27.7). Death occurred more frequently in patients with thrombotic events compared with those without (6 of 17 [35%] vs 2 of 54 [4%]; P = .002) and in patients with molecular aberrations compared with those without (6 of 24 [25%] vs 1 of 40 [3%]; P = .009), although only thrombotic events were significantly associated with increased odds of death after multivariable analysis.

Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, thrombosis was common in patients with HES and was significantly associated with increased risk of death.

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