Your institution is subscribed to Read Institutional Edition. Log in or Sign Up to read full text articles.


Direct microinjection of soman or VX into the amygdala produces repetitive limbic convulsions and neuropathology

J H McDonough, C G McLeod, M T Nipwoda
Brain Research 1987 December 1, 435 (1-2): 123-37
Rats were injected in the amygdala and other forebrain sites with nmolar amounts of the highly toxic organophosphate 'nerve agent' compounds soman or VX (O-ethyl-S-(2-diisopropylaminoethyl)-methylphosphonothioate) in an attempt to determine the mechanism(s) responsible for the permanent brain pathology that has been observed following systemic intoxication with these agents. Injections were performed using a stereotaxically guided microsyringe in animals maintained under halothane/oxygen anesthesia or using chronically implanted cannulae in conscious animals. Bilateral microsyringe injections of up to 11.0 nmol soman into the amygdala failed to evoke abnormal behavior or brain pathology. When rats were pretreated with lithium chloride, or when carbachol was coadministered, soman injections evoked repetitive clonic convulsions and neuropathology. Unilateral injections of 3.4 nmol of VX into the amygdala elicited convulsions and brain damage in 67% of the animals tested. Atropine pretreatment (15.0 mg/kg, i.p.) prevented the development of convulsions and brain damage. Neuropathology was observed only in animals that developed repetitive convulsions; the piriform and entorhinal cortex, amygdala, hippocampus and thalamus were the brain structures most consistently damaged. With unilateral injections, the damage was more severe on the side ipsilateral to the injection. The behavioral topography of the convulsions and the neuroanatomical distribution and nature of the subsequent pathology closely resemble that observed with systemic administration of these compounds. The results indicate that the nerve agents are not directly neurotoxic, that peripherally induced hypoxia or anoxia are unlikely mechanisms of the neuropathology, and that the brain damage produced by these compounds is primarily seizure-mediated.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Trending Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.


Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"

We want to hear from doctors like you!

Take a second to answer a survey question.