JOURNAL ARTICLE
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Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals and Risk of Testicular Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

The incidence of many hormone-dependent diseases, including testicular cancer, has sharply increased in all high-income countries during the 20th century. This is not fully explained by established risk factors. Concurrent, increasing exposure to antiandrogenic environmental endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in fetal life may partially explain this trend. This systematic review assessed available evidence regarding the association between environmental EDC exposure and risk of testicular cancer (seminomas and nonseminomas). Following PRISMA guidelines, a search of English peer-reviewed literature published prior to December 14, 2020 in the databases PubMed and Embase® was performed. Among the 279 identified records, 19 were eligible for quality assessment and 10 for further meta-analysis. The completeness of reporting was high across papers, but over 50% were considered subject to potential risk of bias. Mean age at diagnosis was 31.9 years. None considered effects of EDC multipollutant mixtures. The meta-analyses showed that maternal exposure to combined EDCs was associated with a higher risk of testicular cancer in male offspring [summary risk ratios: 2.16, (95% CI:1.78-2.62), 1.93 (95% CI:1.49-2.48), and 2.78 (95% CI:2.27-3.41) for all, seminoma, and nonseminoma, respectively]. Similarly, high maternal exposures to grouped organochlorines and organohalogens were associated with higher risk of seminoma and nonseminoma in the offspring. Summary estimates related to postnatal adult male EDC exposures were inconsistent. Maternal, but not postnatal adult male, EDC exposures were consistently associated with a higher risk of testicular cancer, particularly risk of nonseminomas. However, the quality of studies was mixed, and considering the fields complexity, more prospective studies of prenatal EDC multipollutant mixture exposures and testicular cancer are needed.

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