JOURNAL ARTICLE
Add like
Add dislike
Add to saved papers

[Biomechanics of the carpus and the wrist].

Over the last decade, the classical concept of the single block carpus has been radically transformed to a more dynamic concept of a "carpus with variable geometry". This conceptual revolution is the result of progress in a number of fields: precise information concerning the situation and, more particularly, the variability of "instantaneous axes", a better understanding of the anatomy of ligaments and their role, allowing their grouping into functional units: the anterior and posterior ligamentous straps and the cuneiform sling which determines its stability and basic movements. The role of the articular disk of the inferior radio-ulnar joint involves not only the stability of the inferior radio-ulnar joint, but also the suspension of the ulnar side of the carpus. The extensor retinaculum, considered to be extra-articular slings, also has a similar role: the anterior ligament controls the concavity of the carpal groove and the dorsal ligament stabilises the posterior ulnar tendon. The essential progress consists of the concept of the first row of carpal bones as an intercalated structure, in particular the concept of "useful space" or "useful distance" between the antebrachial joint cavity and the second row of carpal bones, filled in by the elementary movements of the bones of the first row. This discovery leads directly to concepts of "internal coherence of the carpus " or spatial coherence and the "variable geometry" of the carpus. This approach reveals the internal components of the movements associated in the global movements of the wrist. The last essential concept is that of self-locking and facilitation of the fist row of carpal bones as a result of the interosseous ligaments, which clarifies new syndromes of internal instability of the carpus.

Full text links

For the best experience, use the Read mobile app

Group 7SearchHeart failure treatmentPapersTopicsCollectionsEffects of Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitors for the Treatment of Patients With Heart Failure Importance: Only 1 class of glucose-lowering agents-sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors-has been reported to decrease the risk of cardiovascular events primarily by reducingSeptember 1, 2017: JAMA CardiologyAssociations of albuminuria in patients with chronic heart failure: findings in the ALiskiren Observation of heart Failure Treatment study.CONCLUSIONS: Increased UACR is common in patients with heart failure, including non-diabetics. Urinary albumin creatininineJul, 2011: European Journal of Heart FailureRandomized Controlled TrialEffects of Liraglutide on Clinical Stability Among Patients With Advanced Heart Failure and Reduced Ejection Fraction: A Randomized Clinical Trial.Review

Get seemless 1-tap access through your institution/university

For the best experience, use the Read mobile app

Read by QxMD is copyright © 2021 QxMD Software Inc. All rights reserved. By using this service, you agree to our terms of use and privacy policy.

Get seemless 1-tap access through your institution/university

For the best experience, use the Read mobile app